King Penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus
Taxonomy Animalia Chordata Aves Sphenisciformes Spheniscidae Aptenodytes patagonicus
Description & Behavior
King penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, are the second largest penguins after emperor penguins. Kings are sometimes confused with emperor penguins though the king penguin's range is far to the north of the emperor's habitat in Antarctica. King penguins stand about 90 cm tall and weigh about 15 kg. They have the classic tuxedo coloring with black backs and white bellies. Kings are also characterized by their bright orange ear patches.
World Range & Habitat
King penguins, Aptenodytes patagonicus, can be found around the Oceanic Islands in sub-Antarctic and temperate waters. Their breeding grounds include Tierra del Fuego, the Falklands, Crozet and the islands southeast of Australia and southwest of New Zealand.
Feeding Behavior (Ecology)
King penguins feed on small fish and squid during dives that average 10-20 m during the summer months. In winter, king penguins must forage deeper in the ocean and during this time foraging dives last from 5 minutes to over 1.5 hours. They are infrequent feeders, foraging every 2 weeks. In between foraging trips, king penguins can lose up to half their body weight.
Breeding behavior of the Aptenodytes patagonicus is heralded by the trumpet-like song of the male, who also exhibits a variety of courting behaviors such as extending the head up, throwing the head back and bowing to attract a female. Females lay their eggs during the summer months and males and females alternate incubating. Like the emperor penguin, king penguins do not build nests; they incubate the eggs by carrying them on top of the feet under the belly. This species will raise 2 chicks only every 3 years because of the long brooding period that lasts about a year.
Conservation Status & Comments
King penguins have been hunted for eggs, blubber, oil and feathers. Commercial hunting for king penguins is now banned, therefore the population is increasing and is estimated with a population of possibly 2 million pairs.
References & Further Research
Center for Biological Diversity: Penguins
Sub-Antarctic Islands, Antipodes Island - Ross Sea - Antarctica, Dr Bernie Gunn
King Penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus - International Penguin Conservation Working Group
Research Aptenodytes patagonicus » Barcode of Life ~ BioOne ~ Biodiversity Heritage Library ~ CITES ~ Cornell Macaulay Library [audio / video] ~ Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) ~ ESA Online Journals ~ FishBase ~ Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department ~ GBIF ~ Google Scholar ~ ITIS ~ IUCN RedList (Threatened Status) ~ Marine Species Identification Portal ~ NCBI (PubMed, GenBank, etc.) ~ Ocean Biogeographic Information System ~ PLOS ~ SIRIS ~ Tree of Life Web Project ~ UNEP-WCMC Species Database ~ WoRMS
Feedback & Citation
Start or join a discussion about this species below or send us an email to report any errors or submit suggestions for this page. We greatly appreciate all feedback!
Help Protect and Restore Ocean Life
Help us protect and restore marine life by supporting our various online community-centered marine conservation projects that are effectively sharing the wonders of the ocean with millions each year around the world, raising a balanced awareness of the increasingly troubling and often very complex marine conservation issues that affect marine life and ourselves directly, providing support to marine conservation groups on the frontlines that are making real differences today, and the scientists, teachers and students involved in the marine life sciences.
With your support, most marine life and their ocean habitats can be protected, if not restored to their former natural levels of biodiversity. We sincerely thank our thousands of members, donors and sponsors, who have decided to get involved and support the MarineBio Conservation Society.